CALIFORNIA SCHOLARS FOR ACADEMIC FREEDOM
January 19, 2016
Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu
Office of the Prime Minister
06573 Ankara, Turkey
Via fax +90 312 417 0476; +90 312 403 62 82; + 90 312 422 26 67
cc: President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Fax +90 312 525 58 31
Speaker of the Grand National Assembly Ismail Kahraman, Fax +90 312 420 51 65
Dear Prime Minister Davutoğlu:
California Scholars for Academic Freedom,* an organization devoted to defending academic freedom and representing more than one hundred and fifty faculty at universities throughout California, wishes to express its concern over reports that the Higher Education Council (Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu, or YÖK) held an emergency meeting to commence an investigation against scholars who signed a petition for peace in the Kurdish regions of the country (“Peace Petition”). YÖK officials are reportedly treating this petition as pro-PKK “terrorist propaganda” that falls outside of the protections of academic freedom. Further, there are reports that YÖK plans to convene university rectors to take additional action against signatories at their universities. These actions by YÖK represent a violation of academic freedom and are consistent with broader efforts on the part of the state to punish critics of state policies.
The government’s actions against the Peace Petition signatories are distressing for at least three reasons. First, investigating the signatories after President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan criticized the campaign in a public address, calling the signatories “traitors,” suggests that YÖK’s actions are inappropriately politicized. We understand that the government has enhanced YÖK’s regulatory authorities in ways that are inimical to university autonomy. In this environment, it is hardly surprising that universities are proactively taking punitive measures in anticipation of your government’s actions. Within a day of President Erdoğan’s speech and the announcement of the YÖK investigation several universities initiated punitive measures against their faculty. Assistant Professor Hülya Doğan at Bartın University is reportedly under investigation by her university for being a signatory of the petition. Likewise Sivas Cumhuriyet University has reportedly launched an investigation against Professor Ali Çeliksöz for having signed the petition and he was asked for his resignation. Associate Professor Latife Akyüz has been suspended by Düzce University administration, and a criminal investigation has been opened against her for “terrorism propaganda”—all for being a signatory of the petition. The rector of Abdullah Gül University in Kayseri has reportedly demanded the resignation of Professor Bülent Tanju solely on the grounds that he is a signatory of the Peace Petition. The local prosecutor in Kayseri, taking note of the rector’s action, has also initiated a criminal investigation against Professor Tanju under Articles 216 and 301 of the Penal Code. The mere act of signing the Peace Petition has left Professor Tanju facing possible charges for “inflaming hatred and hostility among peoples” and “denigration of the Turkish nation” under these penal provisions. Professor Melih Kırlıdoğlu, Assistant Professors Çetin Gürer Dilşah Deniz Nil Mutluer and Muzaffer Kaya have also been asked to resign by the rector of Nişantaşı University. Lecturer Ümran Roda Suvağcı from Hakkari University has been taken into custody for having signed the petition. Further disciplinary investigations have reportedly been initiated by the rectors of six universities—Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University, Antalya Akdeniz University, Abant Izzet Baysal University, and Ankara Hacettepe University, Giresun University, Istanbul Arel University—against members of their faculties who are signatories. Halil İbrahim Yenigün, an Assistant Professor of Political Science and International Relations at Istanbul Ticaret University lost his job. Many more universities are likely to follow suit, amounting to a wave of punitive actions against academics solely on the grounds that they have criticized the government’s policies in the southeastern provinces. Moreover, within the first week of the release of the Peace Petition, 12 faculty, who are among its signatories, have been temporarily detained and questioned by state prosecutors, and more such investigations have been reported to have taken place in Erzurum, Düzce, Kocaeli, Bolu, Bursa, Van, Bingöl, Zonguldak, Samsun, Bartın, and are expected to continue in the coming weeks in Istanbul and Izmir. In a university system in which rectors are appointed by the state and YÖK is free to initiate politicized investigations of academics, the actions being taken against signatories of the Peace Petition are a disturbing indication of the degree to which restrictions on academic freedom have become a matter of state policy in Turkey.
Second, among the signatories of the petition are scholars whose research is on the Kurds, other minorities, politics, history, and other related fields. That is, their scholarly work is related to the concerns raised in the text of the petition. By treating the Peace Petition as treasonous and launching an investigation of signatories, the government is effectively interfering with the ability of these academics to conduct their research. President Erdoğan suggests that the petition calls for foreigners to intervene to correct the situation in Turkey. In fact, the petition called for national and international independent observers to monitor the situation in the Kurdish region. This is not a call for foreign intervention, but rather an invitation to engage in the kind of independent observation that is the hallmark of both human rights monitoring and academic research. To investigate and criminalize a petition in which scholars call for independent observers to monitor areas under siege and curfew where civilian deaths have been reported is to strike at the heart of the academic enterprise—the ability to conduct independent research.
The politicization of regulatory powers over higher education to punish dissent and silence critics of your government’s policies on various issues, including Kurdish rights, represents a serious violation of academic freedom, freedom of speech and freedom of assembly, and has cast a long shadow over the democratic credentials of your government.
Third, as a member state of the Council of Europe and a signatory of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Turkey is required to protect freedom of thought, expression and assembly. Turkey is also a signatory to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), all of which protect the rights to freedom of expression and association, which are at the heart of academic freedom. These rights are also enshrined in articles 25-27 of the Turkish Constitution. We urge your government to take all necessary steps to ensure that these rights are protected.
We respectfully ask that your government take immediate steps to ensure that YÖK drop any investigation of or action against the signatories of the Peace Petition and that any actions—including university, YÖK or criminal investigations or charges—against all these academics be reversed. As of this writing reports are emerging about additional disciplinary investigations as well as an independent criminal investigation launched by the Istanbul Public Prosecution Office against all the signatories under Article 301 of the Penal Code and Article 7 of Anti-terror Law alleging “terrorist organization propaganda”; we respectfully demand that any such investigations also be dropped. Against a backdrop of mounting international condemnation of the erosion of democratic rights and freedoms under your administration, taking steps to protect academic freedom and the right to education would be an important step to address concerns about human rights in Turkey.
Thank you for your attention to this matter. We look forward to your positive response.
California Scholars for Academic Freedom
Council of Higher Education International Relations Unit
Prof. Dr. Ali HABERAL, Rector, Başkent Üniversitesi
Levent Uysal, Mütevelli Heyeti Başkanı, Nişantaşı Üniversitesi,
Prof. Dr. Mehmet ÇİVİ, Rector, Arel University
Prof. Dr. Muhit MERT, Rector, Fatih Üniversitesi
Prof. Dr. Musa DUMAN, Rector, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Üniversitesi
Prof. Dr. İbrahim Kafi DÖNMEZ, Rector, İstanbul 29 Mayıs Üniversitesi
Prof. Dr. Nazım Ekren, Rector, İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi,
Prof. Dr. Şahin KARASAR, Rector, Maltepe Üniversitesi
Prof. Dr. İbrahim Hakkı YILMAZ, Rector, Iğdır Üniversitesi
Sondra Hale, Anthropology and Gender Studies, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); email: sonhale@UCLA.edu; phone: 310-836-5121
Katherine C King, Professor of Comparative Literature, University of California at Los Angeles; email: email@example.com; phone: 310-822-2830
David Lloyd, Distinguished Professor of English, University of California, Riverside; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Phone: 951-827-1459
**CALIFORNIA SCHOLARS FOR ACADEMIC FREEDOM is a group of well over 100 academics who teach in 20 California institutions. The group formed as a response to various violations of academic freedom that were arising from both the post-9/11/2001 climate of civil rights violations and the increasing attacks on progressive educators by neo-conservatives. Many attacks have been aimed at scholars of Arab, Muslim or Middle Eastern descent or at scholars researching and teaching about the Middle East, Arab and Muslim communities. Our goal of protecting California Scholars based mainly in institutions of higher education has grown broader in scope to include threats to academic freedom across the United States, and where relevant, globally as well. We recognize that violations of academic freedom anywhere are threats to academic freedom everywhere.
Further information on CS4AF: https://cascholars4academicfreedom.wordpress.com/author/cs4af/
CALIFORNIA SCHOLARS FOR ACADEMIC FREEDOM
November 30, 2015
Dr. George Blumenthal, Chancellor
University of California, Santa Cruz
1156 High Street
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Dear Chancellor Blumenthal,
We are writing you on behalf of the California Scholars for Academic Freedom,* an organization devoted to defending academic freedom and representing more than one hundred fifty faculty at universities and colleges throughout California. We are disturbed to learn of your November 19 letter to the UCSC campus community written in response to the vote by the UCSC Student Union Assembly to reinstate a call for the University of California to divest from companies which profit from military support for the Israeli occupation or from companies which invest in illegal settlements or the illegal separation barrier in occupied Palestinian territories.
Your letter mischaracterizes the students’ resolution, stating that it was a vote to “divest from Israel.” In reality, the resolution called only for divestment from four primarily U.S. companies which directly support the Israeli occupation.
Despite your acknowledging the right of the SUA to address such issues, we find it problematic for a chancellor to effectively criticize student representatives for participating in a democratic process of debate and decision making on contentious issues. To claim that taking a principled stance in support of corporate responsibility in reference to international law and human rights might somehow create a chilling climate on campus comes across as discouraging the very kind of activism which UCSC students have practiced for decades without interference from previous chancellors.
Your letter implies that supporting a socially-responsible investment policy would somehow contribute to a possible climate of harassment or worse for students who disagree. However, the vast majority of harassment on University of California campuses has been towards these very students and faculty who, in the finest tradition of democracy and academic freedom, have spoken out in support of human rights and international law in the Middle East and elsewhere.
In particular, there has been a well-funded effort by various right-wing groups to try to silence criticisms of Israeli policies on UC campuses. As you are well aware, your own campus was dragged through a frivolous lawsuit on this matter which, not surprisingly, was thrown out of court.
Increasingly, such groups are intervening in campus matters across the nation, and they do so with the intent of chilling freedom of expression. Their claims are made in the name of protecting the ethnic or religious sensitivities of students, usually by intemperate and exaggerated characterizations of the statements or scholarly work of those they target. Anti-Semitism—like racism, sexism, and other forms of oppression—is a real problem that UCSC should indeed take seriously. However, while both federal and state law as well as university policy protect students from discrimination or antagonism based on their religious, ethnic, gender and other identities, no law could possibly protect students or faculty from hearing challenges to their political, religious or cultural beliefs simply on the grounds of their identification with them, so long as such discourse is conducted in a non-coercive and nonviolent manner.
One of the most disturbing parts of your letter was your implication that “Jewish students” are a homogenous group who will somehow be offended simply by opposition to certain policies of Israel’s right-wing government. Not only is opposition to the Israeli occupation widespread among Jews in the United States, Israel and elsewhere, Jewish students were among those who voted in favor of the divestment resolution. This is why posting a letter conflating Israeli-occupied territories with Israel and conflating Israel with Jewish students is so problematic. In failing to make these critical distinctions, you are encouraging those who seek to stifle academic freedom by effectively equating opposition to what is recognized by the international community—including the U.S. State Department—as a foreign belligerent occupation and encouraging divestment from corporations which support it as somehow encouraging bigotry towards a minority group.
Academic freedom includes the freedom of faculty and students to reach conclusions that contradict previous dogma, whether within the academy or throughout the larger society. This includes raising concerns and proposing actions regarding violations of international legal norms by a government considered to be a strategic ally of the United States. The university cannot and must not promise that in all situations students or faculty will feel intellectual comfort. Indeed, mental and moral discomfort is often essential conditions for serious learning and thoughtful consideration of views that challenge our preconceptions.
Academic freedom is both the freedom of professors and students from administrative or political interference with research, teaching, and governance, and the constitutional academic freedom that insulates the university in core academic affairs from interference by the state. While your letter recognizes differences of opinion, the fact that you would single out this resolution in such a way could indeed be intimidating for probationary faculty and others who might support this and other initiatives in support of human rights, international law, and corporate responsibility.
Academic freedom also means taking positions and engaging in debates which may be upsetting to some without fear that an administrator will respond in a campus-wide mailing implying there was something wrong in doing so. Indeed, if taking a stance on an issue rooted in international humanitarian law in a foreign country can be construed as somehow “creating an environment in which some students feel alienated and less welcome” and, however indirectly, linked to “unimaginable acts of violence,” this—far more than any student assembly resolution—will indeed have a chilling effect.
It is urgent that you make a strong public stance in support of academic freedom and in support of students who voice opinions about which some may strongly disagree. Your letter implies the opposite by laying the burden of possible harassment on the students voicing these views. In our long experience, the most effective way for an administration to protect its faculty and students from the attacks of those who wish to silence them is to respond strongly and publicly.
We look forward to hearing your public response.
Stephen Zunes Katherine King Sondra Halle
Professor of Politics Professor of Comparative Literature Professor of Anthropology
University of San Francisco University of California, Los Angeles University of California, Los Angeles
* CALIFORNIA SCHOLARS FOR ACADEMIC FREEDOM (cs4af) is a group of scholars who defend academic freedom, the right of shared governance, and the First Amendment rights of faculty and students in the academy and beyond. We recognize that violations of academic freedom anywhere are threats to academic freedom everywhere. California Scholars for Academic Freedom investigates legislative and administrative infringements on freedom of speech and assembly, and it raises the consciousness of politicians, university regents and administrators, faculty, students and the public at large through open letters, press releases, petitions, statements, and articles.
CALIFORNIA SCHOLARS FOR ACADEMIC FREEDOM
Rudy Fichtenbaum, President
Henry Reichman, First VP and chair of Academic Freedom Committee
Nancy McKenney, IV District Council Member
B. Robert Kreiser, IV District Council Member
Gregory F. Scholtz, Academic Freedom Committee staff
Dear AAUP Colleagues,
On behalf of California Scholars for Academic Freedom*, an organization with over 150
members, we urge you to keep the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on your list of
censured administrations. Although we are pleased that the UIUC has acknowledged its
wrongdoing to the extent that it has granted monetary compensation to Professor Steven Salaita
for illegally firing him, we are troubled that the administration has so far refused to make whole
the department it deprived of his services. There is only one way for the UIUC to certify full
academic freedom on campus: the administration must restore to Professor Salaita and the
American Indian Studies Program the position it took away in August 2014.
Although it relieves the financial distress of a deserving colleague, the recently announced
settlement is hardly a victory for academic freedom. Considering the amount of money at the
disposal of the donors who forced the cancellation of his hiring, $875,000 is quite literally
chump change and can be very easily absorbed as the cost of doing business by those who
wanted him out. Indeed, this whole process could act as a deterrent to faculties operating on the
academic margins, such as indigenous studies or other routinely attacked disciplines. Given
what has happened at UIUC, will such disciplines not think twice before choosing to hire
scholars who directly challenge the views of outside economic interests, which have increasing
sway over corporatized universities?
We are reassured to read on the AAUP website that Henry Reichman, chair of the AAUP’s
Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure, does not believe that the settlement with
Professor Salaita automatically entitles UIUC to change its current status as a censured
institution. We hope that Professor Reichman, as he “work[s] with the university to see it get off
the censure list,” will keep in mind the above issues and all the issues raised by the “Statement of
Academics,” to which we fully subscribe. UIUC must remain a censured institution until it gives
Professor Salaita the choice to take up the position for which he was originally hired.
California Scholars For Academic Freedom*
Katherine King, Comparative Literature, University of California Los Angeles, AAUP Member,
Rose Marie Kuhn, French California State University Fresno, AAUP Member, email@example.com
* California Scholars for Academic Freedom is a group of scholars who defend the academic
freedom and first amendment rights of faculty and students in the academy and beyond,
recognizing that violations of academic freedom anywhere are threats to academic freedom
everywhere. California Scholars for Academic Freedom investigates legislative and
administrative infringements on freedom of speech and assembly, and it raises the consciousness
of politicians, university regents and administrators, faculty, students and the public at large
through open letters, press releases, petitions, statements, and articles.